NEET Practice Set 1 Biology

practice set-1

  1. Which of the following branches of biology applies both to plants as well as animals?

         (a)    Taxonomy            (b)    Mycology

         (c)    Virology                (d)    Entomology

2.     Phenetic classification is based on

         (a)    ancestral lineage of existing organisms

         (b)    observable characteristics of existing organisms

         (c)    dendrograms based on DNA characteristics.

         (d)    sexual characteristics

3.     In which of the following “binomial nomenclature” is described?

         (a)    Genera Plantarum

         (b)    Historia Plantarum

         (c)    Systema Naturae

         (d)    Flora Japonica

4.     Virus attacking blue-green algae is known as

         (a)    cyanophage         (b)    coliphage

         (c)    bacteriophage     (d)    zoophage

5.     Helical contractile sheath occurs in

         (a)    bacteria                 (b)    bacteriophage

         (c)    riboviruses           (d)    fungi

6.     The minute structure of the bacterial cell is

         (a)    hair                         (b)    flagella

         (c)    cilia                        (d)    pili

7.     The bacteria which converts nitrites to nitrates is

         (a)    Nitrosococcus        (b)    Nitrosomonas

         (c)    Nitrobacter             (d)    Azotobacter

8.     Algae attached to  stones are called

         (a)    epiploic                 (b)    monolithic

         (c)    epilithic                 (d)    None of these

9.     Which of the following are edible fungi?

         (a)    Lycoperdon            (b)    Rhizopus   

         (c)    Morchella               (d)    Penicillium

10.   In Agaricus, the largest phase of nuclear condition is

         (a)    n                              (b)    2n               

         (c)    n+n                         (d)    3n

11.   Female sex organs of bryophytes are called

         (a)    oogonia                 (b)    ascogonia

         (c)    archegonia         (d)    antheridia

12.   Which one is saprobiotic bryophytes?

         (a)    Ricciocarpus              (b)     Porella

         (c)    Buxbaumia aphylla  (d)    sphagnum

13.   Maximum transpiration occurs in

         (a)    mesophytic plants (b)    hydrophytic plants

         (c)    xerophytic plants   (d)    algal

14.   Prothallus (gametophyte) gives rise to fern plant (sporophyte) without fertilization.  It is

         (a)    apospory              (b)    apogamy

         (c)    parthenocarpy (d)    parthenogenesis

15.   Which one has the largest gametophyte?

         (a)    Cycas                      (b)    Angiosperm

         (c)    Selaginella             (d)    Moss

16.   Which element is necessary for middle lamella?

         (a)    Ca                           (b)    Zn              

         (c)    K                              (d)    Cl

17.   The chief function of vessels in the plant body is

         (a)    to translocate food material

         (b)    to conduct water and mineral salt

         (c)    to support living cells

         (d)    all of the above

18.   In-plant cells, peroxisomes are associated with

         (a)    photorespiration              (b)           phototropism

         (c)    photoperiodism          (d)               photosynthesis

19.   In chloroplasts, chlorophyll is present in the

         (a)    outer membrane          (b)                inner membrane

         (c)    thylakoids            (d)    stroma

20.   The technique to detect specific genes is called

         (a)    DNA cloning       (b)    Southern blotting

         (c)    Western blotting (d)    Northern blotting

21.   Which of the following is a polygamous plant?

         (a)    Mangifera              (b)    Rosa

         (c)    Gossypium             (d)    Pisum

22.   Which contribute to the success of Mendel?

         (a)    Qualitative analysis of data

         (b)    Observation of distinct inherited traits

         (c)    His knowledge of biology

         (d)    Consideration of one character at one time

23.   Mutations used in agriculture are commonly

         (a)    induced                 (b)    spontaneous

         (c)    lethal                      (d)    recessive and lethal

24.   tt mates with Tt.  What will be the characteristics of offspring?

         (a)    75% recessive      (b)    50% recessive

         (c)    25% recessive      (d)    All dominant

25.   replum is present in the ovary of the flower of

         (a)    lemon                    (b)    mustard   

         (c)    sunflower             (D)   pea

Assertion and Reason Types Questions

Choose any one of the following four responses :

          (a)   If both assertion and reason are true and the reason is the correct explanation of the assertion.

          (b)   If both assertion and reason are true but the reason is not the correct explanation of the assertion.

          (c)   If the assertion is true but the reason is false.

          (d)  If assertion and reason both are false.

26.   Assertion: Transformation involves donor and recipient bacteria.

         Reason: Transformation is used for phenotypic alteration in cells.

27  A:    A nucleotide is derived from a nucleoside by addition of a molecule of phosphoric acid.

         R:    DNA is genetic material.

28.   A:    Lichen has two partners- a fungus and algae.

         R :    Lichen shows helotism.

29.   A:    Mutation is the ultimate source of all genetic variation.

         R.     Some levels of mutation are essential to provide new genetic variability to allow organisms to adapt to new environments.

30.   A:    Carotenoids are soluble in organic solvents.

         R:    Carotenoids are accessory pigments.

(31- 35) Match the Following

(36-40) Fill in the Blanks

36.   Idioblasts are specialized…………………. cells.

37.   In Clematis, the ………………… is modified into a tendril.

38.   Golden rice is rich in ………………………

39.   Actinomycin D inhibits the process of ……………

40.   Grazing is an example of …………….pollution.

(41-45) True false type

41.   In a polluted lake, the index of pollution is Daphina.

42.   In ferns, sporangia are borne on the adaxial surface of the sporophyll.

43.   In Trp operon, tryptophan functions as a corepressor.

44.   Genes for ATPase are known as a housekeeping gene.

45.   Caryopsis develops from an inferior ovary.

(46-50) Short Answer type

46.   Define palynology.

47.   Define gene pool.

48.   Name the two types of operons?

49.   Expand the term ODS.

50.   Define DNA fingerprinting

Hints and solutions

1.     It deals with identification, nomenclature and classification of organisms.

2.     It is the system of phylogenetic classification which is based on affinities, similarities and dissimilarities of characteristics present in the present day of the organism.

3.     Carolus Linnaeus is known as the father of taxonomy.  He published a number of important books, eg.,  Genera Plantarum, Species Plantarum etc. and gave binomial  nomenclature

4.     Cyanophages are viruses infecting blue-green algae.

5.     A bacteriophage is a double-stranded DNA containing the virus which infects bacteria

6.     Pilus is a short filamentous structure composed of protein that extends from the surface of a bacterial cell.

14.   When prothallus of a fern, give rise to sporophyte directly from somatic cell without forming gametes then it is called apogamy.  Such type of sporophyte is haploid in nature.  Development of gametophyte directly from sporophyte without meiosis and without forming spore is apospory.

15.   As one moves from thallophyta Bryophyta Pteriodophyta Gymnos-perm  Angiosperm, there is a reduction in the gametophyte and elaboration of the sporophyte.

16.   Zinc is an activator of enzymes like carbonic anhydrase.  Copper takes part in electron transport as plastocyanin Potassium maintains membrane permeability.

18.   In-plant peroxisomes are associated with photorespiration.  They are associated with chloroplasts and mitochondria.

19.   Thylakoid membranes possess chlorophyll.  The outer membrane is permeable to a number of solutes.  The inner membrane has a number of carrier proteins.  Stroma forms the matrix containing the enzyme for the Calvin cycle.

22.   Unlike his predecessors, who simultaneously worked on a large number of characters, Mendel studied the inheritance of a single trait, one at a time.

23.   Induced mutations are produced in response to certain external factors or chemicals which are turned into a mutagen.

24.   On mating tt with Tt, 50% individual offsprings are recessive and 50% inhibit heterozygous dominant characteristics.

25.   We know that replum in the ovary of a flower of mustard and other members of the family Cruciferae.  In this family, the ovary is initially bicarpellary and unilocular but it becomes bilocular due to the formation of replum which is a false septum

26.   Transformation involves the uptake of naked DNA molecules from one bacterium (the donor cell) by another bacterium (the recipient cell).

27.   A nucleotide is derived from a nucleoside by the addition of a molecule of phosphoric acid.

28.   The thallus of every lichen is composed of two quite different organisms, a fungus and algae.  The fungal component forms the bulk of the lichen thallus.  The fungal hyphae form a close network resembling a tissue-like mass with the algal cells often embedded in it.  Algae synthesize their own food from carbon dioxide and water.  Food materials from the algae diffuse out and are absorbed by the fungus.  The reproductive organs, however, are entirely fungal in character.

29.   Mutation provides the raw material for evolution.  Recombination merely rearranges this genetic variability into new combinations and natural selection simply preserves the combinations.  Without mutations, all genes would exist in only one form.  Alleles would not exist, and thus genetic analysis would not be able to evolve and adapt to environmental changes.  Mutation then is an important phenomenon.

30.   Both carotenes and xanthophylls are soluble in organic solvents like chloroform, ethyl ether, etc.  Carotenes are more soluble in carbon disulphide compared to xanthophylls.  Xantophylla is oxygen-containing derivatives of carotenes.  e.g., Cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin.

46.   Study of pollen grains is called palynology.

47.   The aggregate of all the genes and their alleles present in an interbreeding population is known as gene pool.

48.   Inducible, repressible.

49.   Ozone-depleting substances.

50.  It is a modern technique of identifying individuals by comparing the nucleotide sequences of their DNA’s.