NCERT Solution Story of Village Palampur Class 9

 1. Every village in India is surveyed once in ten years during the Census and some of the de­tails are presented in the following format. Fill up the following, based on information on Palampur.
 

(a) Location :
(b) Total Area of the Village :
(c) Land Use (in hectares) :


 (b) Facilities:

 (a) Location : 3 km away from Raiganj village

(b) Total Area of the Village: 226 hectares

(c) Land Irrigated: 200 hectares

Unirrigated: Nil.

(d) Facilities-Educational: Two primary schools and one high school.

Medical: One government primary health centre and one private dispensary.

Electricity Supply: Most of the houses have electric connections.

Communication : Posts, telephone and television.

Nearest Town: Shahpur.

 2. Modern farming methods require more inputs which are manufactured in industry. Do you agree?

Ans. Yes, modern farming methods require more inputs such as,

(i) Tubewells for irrigation: Provided by iron and steel industry.

(ii) HYV seeds: Developed at Research Centres like Pusa Institute, Delhi.

(iii) Chemical fertilizers: Provided by the chemical industry.

(iv) Pesticides: Manufactured in factories.

(v) Tractors and threshers: Provided by the manufacturing industry.

3. How did the spread of electricity help farmers in Palampur?

Ans. The spread of electricity has helped the farmers of Palampur village in the following ways :

(i) Most of the houses have electric connections.

(ii) Electricity is used to run tube wells in the fields.

(iii) Electricity is used in various types of small business.

4. Is it important to increase the area under irrigation? Why?

Ans. India is an agricultural country. Nearly two-thirds of the people are dependent on farming for their livelihood. But of the total cultivated area in the country, a little less than 40per cent is irrigated even today. In the remaining areas, farming is largely dependent on rainfall which is irregular and uncertain. Modern farming methods cannot be used in the absence of assured adequate water supplies. India cannot achieve the goal of self-sufficiency in foodgrains unless the area under irrigation is increased.

No. of Families Land in Hectares Remarks
1. About 150 families mostly SCs (Dalits)   No. land for cultivation    
2. About 240 families.   Small plots of land less than 2 hectares in size.   Cultivation of such plots does not bring adequate in­come to the farmer family.  
3. About 60 families of medium and large farmers   More than two hectares of land. A few large farm­er with over 10 hectares of land or more.   Hire farm labourers to work on their fields.  

6. Why are the wages for farm labourers in Palampur less than minimum wages?

Ans. Farmworkers at Palampur village get lower wages than the minimum wages fixed by the government. The minimum wages for a farm labourer is fixed at `300 (March 2017) per day. But farm labourers get only `160. This happens because of heavy competition for work among the farm labourers at Palampur village.

7. In your region, talk to two labourers. Choose either farm labourers or labourers work­ing at construction sites. What wages do they get? Are they paid in cash or kind? Do they get work regularly? Are they in debt?

Ans. After talking to two farm labourers it was found that :

(i) They were getting `50 per day.

(ii) They were being paid in cash.

(iii) They do not get work regularly.

(iv) Both of them had borrowed some money from the moneylender.

8. What are the different ways of increasing production on the same piece of land? Use examples to explain.

Ans. Land area under cultivation is practically fixed. Hence, something should be done to increase production on the same piece of land. The different ways to increase production are the following.

(i) Multiple cropping: It is the most common way of increasing production on a given piece of land. Under it, more than one crop is grown on the same piece of land during the year. For example, in Palampur during the rainy season (kharif) farmers grow jowar and bajra followed by the cultivation of potato between October and December. Similarly, in the winter season (rabi) wheat is produced and a part of the land is devoted to sugarcane which is harvested once every year.

(ii) Modern farming methods: The Green Revolution in India is a remarkable example of adopting modern farming methods. Under it, the more cultivable area was brought under HYV seeds and irrigation. The use of simple wooden plough was replaced by tractors. The increasing use of farm machinery like tractors. Threshers, harvesters etc. make cultivation faster. For example, in Palampur, the yield of wheat grown from traditional varieties was 1,300 kg per hectare. With modern methods, the yield went up to 3,200 kg per hectare.

(iii) Well-developed irrigation system: There should be a well-developed system to irrigate land effectively. For example, in Palampur, electric run tube wells could irrigate all the land by 1970s.

9. Describe the work of a farmer with 1 hectare of land.

Ans. One hectare of land equals the area of a square with one side measuring 100 metres. A farmer who works on a piece of 1 hectare of land is treated as a small farmer. He performs the following type of activities on the field :

(i) ploughing by bullocks/tractor (ii) sowing of seeds

(iii) watering of the field (iv) spraying of insecticides

(v) cutting of crops

10. How do the medium and large farmers obtain capital for farming? How is it different from the small farmers?

Ans. Capital requirements of farmers are as follows.

Farmers small or large require capital during production. They require both fixed capital and working capital.

The medium and large farmers have their own savings from farming. They thus are able to arrange for the capital needed. These farmers sell the surplus farm products in the market. A part of this earning is saved and used for buying capital items such as farm machinery, raw material, etc.

But small farmers have to borrow money to arrange for the capital. They borrow from large farmers or the village moneylenders or the traders who supply them various inputs for cultivation. The rate of interest on such loans is very high.

11. On what terms did Savita get a loan from Tejpal Singh? Would Savita’s condition be different if she could get a loan from the bank at a low rate of interest?

Ans. Savita is a small farmer. She plans to cultivate a small piece of land of one hectare. She does not have money to arrange for capital. So she decides to borrow from Tejpal Singh — a big farmer who belongs to the same village Palampur. Tejpal Singh gives a loan of `3000 to Savita at an interest rate of 24 per cent. He gives this loan for four months. Besides, Savita also has to work on Tejpal Singh’s field as a farm labourer during the harvesting season. Tejpal Singh gives her `35 per day as wages. Savita agrees to all these tough conditions because she needs a loan.

Savita’s condition would have been better if she could get a loan from the bank. The bank would have provided her with the loan at a low rate of interest. Moreover, Savita could have devoted more time on her own field instead of working for Tejpal Singh as a farm labourer.

12. Talk to some old residents in your region and write a short report on the changes in irrigation and changes in production methods during the last 30 years. (Optional)

Ans. A survey was conducted to know about the changes that have taken place in irrigation and other production methods during the last 30 years. Some old residents of the region were contacted. The findings of the report are given as under.

The farmers reported that cultivation had gone through major changes during the last 30 years. These included :

• Traditional agricultural practices are steadily being replaced by modern farming practices. Indian agriculture has witnessed mechanisation on a large scale. The use of HYV seeds has increased.

• Farmers have begun to set-up their own pump-sets for irrigation.

• Unlike past, farmers now grow at least two main crops during the year.

13. What are the non-farm production activities taking place in your region? Make a shortlist.

Ans. Non-farm activities refer to the activities other than farming which are undertaken to earn income. Different types of these activities include the following :

  • Small manufacturing, i.e. the activities of weavers, potters, blacksmiths, carpenters, basket-makers, etc.

(ii) Large manufacturing

(iii) Brickmaking units

(iv) Shopkeeping/trading

(v) Transport

(vi) Dairying

(vii) Moneylending

(viii) Making of jaggery (gur)

(ix) Coaching centres.

14. What can be done so that more non-farm production activities can be started in villages?

Ans. In future, there should be more and more non-farming activities in the villages. The following steps/measures may be undertaken in this regard.

(i) Although people with some amount of money can set up non-farm activities, it is important that concessional loans should be made available.

(ii) Another thing which is essential for the expansion of non-farm activities is to have markets where goods and services produced can be sold. For example, there should be markets for milk, cloth, clay, utensils, etc.

(iii) More villages need to be connected to towns and cities through all-weather roads, transport and telephone.