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## NCERT Solution Class 10 Science Chapter 11

#### Chapter 11: Human Eye and the Colourful World

Q.11. Make a diagram to show how hypermetropia is corrected. The near point of a hypermetropic eye is 1 m. What is the power of the lens required to correct this defect? Assume that the near point of the normal eye is 25 cm.

Ans. A person suffering from hypermetropia can see distinct objects clearly but faces difficulty in seeing nearby objects clearly. It happens because the eye lens focuses the incoming divergent rays beyond the retina. This defect of vision is corrected by using a convex lens. A convex lens of suitable power converges the incoming light in such a way that the image is formed on the retina, as shown in the following figure.

The convex lens actually creates a virtual image of a nearby object (N′ in the figure) at the near point of vision (N) of the person suffering from hypermetropia.

The given person will be able to clearly see the object kept at 25 cm (near the point of the normal eye) if the image of the object is formed at his near point, which is given as 1 m.

Object distance, u = – 25 cm .

Image distance, v = – 1 m = – 100 m

Focal length = f

Using the lens formula,

A convex lens of power +3.0 D is required to correct the defect.

Q.12. Why is a normal eye not able to see clearly the objects placed closer than 25 cm?

Ans. A normal eye is unable to clearly see the objects placed closer than 25 cm because the ciliary muscles of eyes are unable to contract beyond a certain limit.

Q.13. What happens to the image distance in the eye when we increase the distance of an object from the eye?

Ans. The image is formed on the retina even on increasing the distance of an object from the eye. For this eye, the lens becomes thinner and its focal length increases as the object are moved away from the eye.

Q.14. Why do stars twinkle?

Ans. Stars twinkle due to atmospheric refraction of starlight. As the stars are very far away, they behave as almost point sources of light. On account of atmospheric refraction, the path of a ray of light coming from the star goes on varying slightly, thus the apparent position of the star fluctuates and the amount of light entering the eye flickers. So, sometimes, the star appears brighter and at some other time, fainter. Thus, the stars twinkle.

Q.15. Explain why the planets do not twinkle?

Ans. Planets are much closer to the earth and are seen as extended sources. So, a planet may be considered as a collection of a large number of point-sized light sources. Although light coming from individual point-sized sources flickers but the total amount of light entering our eye from all the individual point-sized sources average out to be constant. Thereby, planets appear equally bright and there is no twinkling of planets.

Q.16. Why does the Sun appear reddish early in the morning?

Ans. During sunrise, the light rays coming from the Sun have to travel a greater distance in the earth’s atmosphere before reaching our eyes. In this journey, the shorter wavelengths of lights are scattered away and only longer wavelengths are able to reach our eyes. Since the blue colour has a shorter wavelength and red colour has a longer wavelength, the red colour is able to reach our eyes after the atmospheric scattering of light. Therefore, the Sun appears reddish early in the morning.

Q.17. Why does the sky appear dark instead of blue to an astronaut?

Ans. The sky appears dark instead of blue to an astronaut because there is no atmosphere in the outer space that can scatter the sunlight. As the sunlight is not scattered, no scattered light reach the eyes of the astronauts and the sky appears black to them.

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