NCERT QUESTIONS Physical Features of India
Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.
(i) A landmass bounded by the sea on three sides is referred to as
A. Coast B. Island
C. Peninsula D. None of the above
Ans. C. Peninsula
(ii) Mountain ranges in the eastern part of India forming its boundary with Myanmar are
collectively called as
A. Himachal B. Uttarakhand
C. Purvachal D. None of the above
Ans. C. Purvachal
(iii) The western coastal strip, south of Goa is referred to as
A. Coromandel B. Konkan
C. Kannad D. Northern Circar
Ans. C. Kannad
(iv) The highest peak in the Eastern Ghats is
A. Anai Mudi B. Kanchenjunga
C. Mahendragiri D. Khasi
Ans. C. Mahendragiri
Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) What are tectonic plates?
(ii) Which continents of today were parts of the Gondwana land?
(iii) What is the bhabar?
(iv) Name the three major divisions of the Himalayas from north to south.
(v) Which plateau lies between the Aravali and the Vindhyan ranges?
(vi) Name the island group of India having a coral origin.
Ans. (i) These are large fragments of the earth’s crust torn due to the rising currents. There are seven major and many minor plates
(ii) The continents that were part of the Gondwanaland are South America, Australia and
Antarctica and parts of Asia (India, Arabia & Malay)
(iii) At the foot of the Shiwalik range, a narrow strip of pebble formation is found. It is known as bhabhar. It is about 8 to 16 km wide belt of pebbles.
(iv) The three major divisions of the Himalayas from north to south are:
A. Great or Inner Himalayas called Himadri.
B. Middle Himalayas or Himachal.
C. Outer Himalayas or Shiwalik.
(v) The Central Highlands
(vi) The Lakshadweep
(i) Converging and diverging tectonic plates.
(ii) Bhangar and Khadar.
(iii) The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats.
(i) Converging and diverging tectonic plates.
(ii) Distinguish between bhangar and khadar
(iii) Distinguish between the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats.
- Describe how the Himalayas were formed.
Ans. The peninsular part of India was a part of the Gondwanaland. Convectional currents split the crust into a number of pieces, thus leading to the drifting of the Indo-Australian plate towards the north. This northward drift of this plate resulted in the collision with the much larger Eurasian Plate. The Indo-Australian plate got beneath the Eurasian plate. The sedimentary rocks that had accumulated in the geo-syncline known as the Tethys were folded to form the mountain system of western Asia and the Himalayas.
- Which are the major physiographic division of India? Contrast the relief of the Himalayan the region with that of the Peninsular Plateau.
Ans. The major physiographic divisions of India are :
(i) The Great Mountains of the North. (ii) The North Indian Plains.
(iii) The Peninsular Plateau (iv) The Coastal Plains and
(v) The Islands.
Give an account of the Northern Plains of India.
Ans. The Northern Plains have been formed from the alluvium that the mountain rivers deposited here. This turned the soil on the surfaced land fertile for growing a rich harvest of a variety of crops. The rich soil was further aided by favourable climate and constant water supply from the rivers. Between the mouths of the Indus and the Ganga-Brahmaputra, the North Indian Plain covers a distance of 3200 km. It is 300 to 150 km wide in some places. The North Indian Plains have the Indus river system in the west and the Ganga-Brahmaputra the river system in the east. The Ganga, its tributaries and the Brahmaputra combine as Meghna in Bangladesh as they drain into the Bay of Bengal. They form the world’s largest and fastest-growing delta.
The difference in relief has led the Northern Plains to be divided into four zones:
(i) Bhabhar (ii) Terai (iii) Bhangar (iv) Khadar
- Write short notes on the following.
(i) The Indian Desert (ii) Central Highlands (iii) Island groups of India
Ans. (i) The Indian Desert
Lying towards the western margins of the Aravali Hills, the Indian desert is formed of sandy plain covered with sand dunes. Receiving less than 10 cm rainfall in a year, the region has an arid climate, low vegetation and streams that appear only in the rainy season.
But they soon disappear into the sands, lacking enough water to reach the sea. Large areas of the deserts have crescent-shaped sand dunes, i.e., barchans, while longitudinal dunes are abundant near Indo-Pakistan boundary.
(ii) Central Highlands
The northern part of the Peninsular Plateau consists of plateaus, denuded mountain ranges and low hills made of igneous rocks. In the north-west is the Aravali range, running in a southwest,
north-east direction forming a discontinuous ridge. The Thar Desert lies to the west of Aravali ranges. The southern boundary is demarcated by the Vindhya Range with Kaimur Hills in the eastern extent. The Malwa plateau lies between Aravalis and Vindhyas.
(iii) Island groups of India
The Lakshadweep consists of many small islands located opposite the Kerala coast in the Arabian Sea. The islands of this group are formed of coral deposits called ‘atolls’ in Malayalam which refers to their ring or ‘horseshoe’ shape. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, on the other hand, are larger in size. They are more in number and more widely scattered. There are about 200 islands in the Andaman group and 19 islands in the Nicobar group.
On an outline map of India show the following.
(i) Mountain and hill ranges — the Karakoram, the Zaskar, the Patkai Bum, the Jaintia, the Vindhya range, the Aravali, and the Cardamom hills.
(ii) Peaks — K2, Kanchenjunga, Nanga Parbat and the Anai Mudi.
(iii) Plateaus — Chhota Nagpur and Malwa
(iv) The Indian Desert, Western Ghats, Lakshadweep Islands.