Remaining Part of NCERT Solution Chapter 1


7. Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.

Ans. (i) Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation: art and poetry, stories and music helped to express and shape nationalist feelings.

Romanticism was a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists and poets generally became strong critics of reason and science in their glorified forms. The Romanticists dwelt more on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings. They aimed at creating a sense of shared collective heritage and common cultural past to serve as the basis of a nation.

(ii) German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder (1744 – 1803), a Romantic, claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people — das volk. He claimed that folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances held the true spirit of the nation (Volksgeist). He encouraged collecting and recording these forms of folk culture as essential to the nation-building process.

The emphasis on vernacular language and the collection of local folklore was not just to recover an ancient national spirit, but also to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences who were mostly illiterate. Even though Poland no longer existed as an independent territory, national feelings were kept alive there through music and language.

(iii) Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere. In 1831, an armed rebellion against Russian rule took place but was ultimately crushed. Following this, many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance. Polish was used for Church gatherings and all religious instruction. As a result, a large number of priests and bishops were put in jail or sent to Siberia by the Russian authorities as punishment for their refusal to preach in Russian. The use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of struggle against Russian dominance.

8. Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nine­teenth century.

Ans. (i) This can be observed in the process by which Germany and Italy came to be unified as nation-states. Prussia took over the leadership of the movement for German unification. Its chief minister Otto von Bismarck was the architect of this process carried – out with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy. Three wars over 7 years – with Austria, Denmark and France – ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of German unification. In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German emperor.

(ii) (a) During the 1830s, Mazzini had started the process of Italian unification through a secret society called Young Italy.

(b) The failure of revolutionary uprisings in 1831 and 1848 led to Sardinia-Piedmont and its ruler Victor Emmanuel II assuming leadership of Italian unification.

(c) Chief minister Cavour forged a tactful alliance with France and defeated Austrian forces in 1859.

(d) In 1860, Garibaldi drove out Spanish rulers from the two Sicilies and south Italy.

(e) Later on, in 1870 the Papal States were united. During the war with Prussia, France withdrew its troops from Rome and the Papal States were finally joined to Italy.

(f) Thus, Italy was unified under the leadership of Cavour and Garibaldi.

9. How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?

Ans. In Britain, the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution. It was the result of a long-drawn-out process.

(i) There was no British nation prior to the eighteenth century. All the ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions. But as the English nation steadily grew in wealth, importance and power, it extended influence over other nations of the island.

(ii) The English parliament, which had seized power from the monarchy in 1688 at the end of a protracted conflict, was the instrument through which a nation-state, with England at its centre, came to be forged. The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland that resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’ meant, in effect, that England was able to impose its influence on Scotland. The British parliament was henceforth dominated by its English members. The growth of a British identity meant that Scotland’s distinctive culture and political institutions were systematically suppressed.

(iii) Ireland suffered a similar fate. It was a country deeply divided between Catholics and Protestants. The English helped the Protestants of Ireland to establish their dominance over a largely Catholic country. Catholic revolts against British dominance were suppressed.

Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801.

10. Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?

Ans. (i) The Balkan region comprised modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro, and its inhabitants were broadly called Slavs.

(ii) With a large area of Balkan region under the Ottoman Empire, the spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the breaking up of the Ottoman Empire made the situation even more serious.

(iii) Ottoman Empire had not been able to become strong even after reforms and modern methods after an effort of nearly 91 years. Gradually, most of the European subject nationalities broke away from the Ottoman Empire’s control to declare themselves independent.

(iv) The claim for independence and political rights by the Balkan people was based on nationality. They gave examples of history to prove that they had once been independent but had subsequently been subjugated by foreign powers.

(v) Thus, the rebellious nationalities in the Balkans thought of their struggles as attempts to win back their long lost independence.

(vi) Soon various Slavic nationalities were struggling to define their identity and independence making Balkan region one having intense conflict.

(vii) The internal rivalries and jealousies made the Balkan states distrust and fear each other.

(viii) As the Balkans had become a site for big power fights, the situation became even more serious. The fights were among the European powers who fought for trade and colonies and for naval and military supremacy.

(ix) Russia, Germany, England and Austria-Hungary wanted to gain control of the Balkan region causing many wars which culminated in the First World War.