Chapter 4: Electoral Politics Class 9
NCERT 9 Chapter 4 Electoral Politics Civics
Very Short Answer Type Questions. [1 Mark]
1. Who led the ‘Nyaya Yudh’?
Ans. Chaudhary Devi Lal
1. Into how many constituencies is the country divided for Lok Sabha elections?
2. How many seats are reserved for women in rural and urban local bodies?
Ans. 1/3 of the total seats.
3. What is the minimum age required to contest election to Lok Sabha?
Ans. 25 years
4. What is the tenure of the Lok Sabha?
Ans. 5 years
1. Define the term ‘Turnout’.
Ans. The percentage of eligible voters who cast their votes in an election is termed as ‘turnout’.
2. Name the body which conducts the elections in India.
Ans. Election Commission
3. Who appoints the Chief Election Commissioner?
Ans. The President of India
4. What do you understand by the term ‘Incumbent’?
Ans. The current holder of a political office is termed as an incumbent. Usually, the choice for the voters in elections is between the incumbent party or candidate and those who oppose them.
5. Describe the term level playing field.
Ans. It is a condition in which all parties and candidates contesting in an election have equal opportunities to appeal for votes and to the carry-out election campaign.
5. Which state has the largest Vidhan Sabha constituency in the country?
Ans. Uttar Pradesh
6. Who has given the slogan ‘Garibi Hatao’?
Ans. Indira Gandhi
7. What is the minimum age of voters in India?
Ans. 18 years
8. What do you understand by the term Electoral Roll?
Ans. The list of names of people who are eligible to vote is termed as the electoral roll.
9. What do you understand by the term Code of Conduct?
Ans. The Code of Conduct is a set of norms and guidelines to be followed by political parties and contesting candidates during election time.
10. Name the slogan which became popular in the West Bengal Assembly elections held in 1977.
Ans. Land to the Tiller
2. What was the promise Devi Lal made to the farmers and small businessmen?
Ans. He would waive the loans of farmers and small businessmen.
3. Define the term Constituency.
Ans. Voters in a geographical area who elect a representative to the legislative bodies is termed as a constituency.
4. Discuss the importance of elections in a democracy.
Ans. Elections give people a chance to choose the representatives, the government and policies they prefer. The democratic way of selecting representatives can be had by holding elections. The voters can make their choice.
5. How many seats Lok Dal won in State assembly elections in Haryana in 1987?
Ans. 76 out of 90 seats.
Short Answer Type Questions. [3 Marks]
1. What are some of the activities undertaken by political parties to the carry-out election campaign? Mention any three activities.
Ans. In election campaigns, political parties try to focus public attention on some big issues, e.g., the Congress party led by Indira Gandhi gave the slogan of “Gharibi Hatao” in the Lok Sabha elections of 1971. “Save Democracy” was the slogan of Janata Party in the Lok Sabha election of 1977. Secondly, political leaders contact their voters, address election meetings, promise to remove the grievances of the people. Thirdly, support of media – TV Channels and newspaper columns – is also taken by the political parties to further their cause to gather more votes.
1. Explain how the outcome of elections is a final test of free and fair elections.
Ans. (i) The ruling parties routinely lose elections in India both at the national and state level. In fact, in every two out of the three elections held so far, the ruling party lost.
(ii) In the US, an incumbent or ‘sitting’ elected representative rarely loses an election. In India, about half of the sitting MPs or MLAs lose elections.
(iii) Candidates who are known to have spent a lot of money on ‘buying votes’ and those with known criminal connections often lose elections.
2. What are the main functions of the Election Commission of India?
Ans. Election Commission of India takes decisions on every aspect to conduct and control of the election. It implements a code of conduct. It orders guidelines for the government to prevent misuse of power to win elections. If EC feels unfairness in polling it orders a repoll.
3. In which way does the Election Commission enjoy the same kind of independence as the judiciary?
Ans. The Election Commission enjoys the same kind of independence that the judiciary enjoys. The Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) is appointed by the President of India. But once appointed, he is not answerable to the President or the government. Even if the ruling party or the government does not like what the Commission does, it is virtually impossible for it to remove the CEC.
4. Explain any four conditions that make an election democratic.
Ans. (i) Every section of citizens should get equal representation.
(ii) Everyone should get an equal opportunity to choose representatives.
(iii) Voters’ list which is revised every five years.
(iv) The use of Election Photo-Identity Card should be encouraged.
2. Discuss the importance of an election manifesto.
Ans. An election manifesto is a statement by a political party explaining its policies, saying what they will do if they win the election.
4. Define elections. Explain the nomination process as practised in Indian elections.
Ans. Every candidate who wishes to contest an election has to fill a nomination form and give some money as a deposit. According to a recent directive from the Supreme Court, every candidate has to make a legal declaration giving full details of assets liabilities, educational qualification & details of any serious criminal cases pending against them.
5. Why is there a provision of reservation of seats in the legislatures?
Ans. The constitution-makers were worried that in an open electoral competition, certain weaker sections may not stand a good chance to get elected to the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies. They may not have the required resources, education and contacts to contest and win elections against the more influential contestants. So seats are reserved for them in the legislature.
6. Mention the provisions laid down under the Model Code of Conduct to regulate the election campaign.
Ans. According to the Model Code of Conduct, no party can :
(i) use any place of worship for election propaganda.
(ii) use government vehicles, aircraft and officials for elections.
(iii) once elections are announced ministers shall not lay foundation stones of any projects, take any big policy decisions or make any promises of providing public facilities.
7. Write about any three challenges which an ordinary citizen would have to face if he wants to contest an election.
Ans. An ordinary citizen would have to face some of the following challenges if he wants to contest the elections :
(i) Candidates with a lot of money enjoy a big and unfair advantage over contestants.
(ii) Sometimes, candidates with criminal connections push others out of the electoral race and secure a ‘ticket’.
(iii) Some families tend to dominate political parties.
8. Mention any three techniques of the election campaign.
Ans. (i) Candidates contact their voters.
(ii) They address election meetings.
(iii) They use newspapers and TV for their publicity.