NCERT 9 Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge
Very Short Answer Type Questions. [1 Mark]
1. State two commonly used indicators of poverty?
Ans. Two commonly used indicators of poverty are as follows:
(i) level of income
(ii) level of consumption
2 How poverty line is determined in India?
Ans. For determining the poverty line in India the minimum level of requirement for basic of food, clothes, fuel and power consumption are being estimated. Then the estimated amount of individual requirement will be multiplied by their individual prices in rupees. Finally, the addition of all the prices will be considered as the poverty line.
3. Why the per capita calorie consumption is high in a rural area than in urban area?
Ans. The per capita calorie consumption is high in a rural area (2400cal) to that of the urban area (2100 cal). It is because the people in rural areas are mostly engaged in manual labour than the people in an urban area.
3. Why is the poverty line higher in the urban area?
Ans. In India, the poverty line in an urban area is higher than the rural area because the cost of essential commodities in urban areas is higher.
4. What do you mean by the vulnerability of poverty?
Ans. The vulnerability of poverty refers to the measure which describes the greater probability of certain communities or individuals (such as a widow or a physically handicapped person) of becoming or remaining poor in coming years.
Short Answer Type Questions. [3 Marks]
1. How do the poor children catch into the vicious cycle of poverty?
Ans. One of the major issues with children under poverty is the lack of education. Poor people are unable to afford the schooling of their children, which makes them uneducated for the whole life. Due to the lack of education, the children are unable to get employed and remain poor for the rest of their life. Thus they caught into the vicious circle of poverty.
2. What are the social indicators of poverty?
Ans. The social indicators of poverty are as follows:
(i) Low literacy rate
(iii) Lack of healthcare facilities
(iv) The high rate of unemployment due to lack of employment opportunities
(v) Lack of access to safe drinking water and sanitation.
3. What do you mean by social exclusion and what are its consequences?
Ans. Social exclusion is a process through which individuals or groups are excluded from facilities, benefits, etc., that others enjoy. Generally, the economically backward or the lower stratum of the people lies in the category of social exclusion. They cannot enjoy social equality. The social exclusion plays both the role of cause as well as the consequence of poverty.
For example, in urban areas, a cluster of economically backward people living in the slums adjacent to the high rise building. These people provide their services to the rich people residing in those posh societies but they are excluded from the benefits the rich people enjoy.
III. Long Answer Type Questions. [5 Marks]
1. Discuss the major issues related to poverty in India.
Ans. Major issues related to poverty in India are as follows:
Hunger: People under poverty line suffer from chronic hunger as they are unable to afford two square meals per day for the family. this implies they do not get enough food which their body requires on a daily basis.
Lack of shelter: They do not have any land of their own. Thus, they have to live under a small thatched house or rooms covered with polythene, which is not livable in terms of space and hygiene.
Lack of education: They cannot afford to send their children to school. Thus the children are unable to make it to better employment due to lack of education.
Lack of Healthcare: They suffer from malnutrition due to unavailability of a proper meal, but due to poverty, they do not even get it treated as the cost of healthcare facilities are beyond their reach.
Lack of clean water and sanitation facilities: They don’t have access to safe and clean drinking water as the cost is not affordable. Along with that the small houses or rooms where they stay don’t have proper sanitation facilities.
Unemployment: As they are deprived of the education they also lack better employment opportunities.
Child labour: The family has to engage their children in various kinds of work for getting additional income to the family.