NCERT 9 Chapter 3 Constitutional Design Civics
Very Short Answer Type Questions. [1 Mark]
1. On what basis India was partitioned?
Ans. India was partitioned on the basis of religious differences.
2. How many people have killed during partition related violence?
Ans. At least ten lakh people were killed on both sides of the border in partition related violence.
3. What were the options left for the rulers of the princely states?
Ans. The British had left it to the rulers of the princely states to decide whether they wanted to merge with India or with Pakistan or remain independent.
4. Into how many bulky volumes the ‘Constituent Assembly Debates are printed’?
Ans. 12 bulky volumes
5. Name the political party which dominated the Constituent Assembly
Ans. Indian National Congress
1. What is apartheid?
Ans. The official policy of discrimination against Blacks is termed as apartheid.
2. Name the organisation that led the struggle against the policies of segregation in South Africa.
Ans. African National Congress.
3. When did South Africa become a democratic country?
Ans. On 26 April 1994.
4. With the end of apartheid, who became the first President of South African Republic?
Ans. Nelson Mandela.
5. Define the term ‘treason’.
Ans. The term treason is associated with the offence of attempting to overthrow the government of the state to which the offender owes allegiance.
1. Who wrote a magazine, ‘Young India’?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi
2. What does the Preamble of the Indian Constitution Contain?
Ans. The Preamble of the Indian Constitution contains the philosophy on which the entire constitution has been built. It is the soul of the Indian Constitution.
3. What do you understand by the word ‘ Fraternity’?
Ans. Under fraternity, all of us should behave as if we are members of the same family. No one should treat a fellow citizen as inferior.
4. Who defines who will have how much power to make which decisions?
Ans. The Constitution
5. How many kinds of ‘Justice’ are mentioned in the Preamble to the Indian Constitution?
Ans. Three kinds of ‘Justice’ are mentioned in the Preamble to the Indian Constitution, i.e. social, economic and political.
Short Answer Type Questions. [3 Marks]
1. In which way was the system of ‘apartheid’ oppressive?
Ans. The apartheid system was particularly oppressive for the blacks. They were forbidden from living in white areas. They could work in white areas only if they had a permit. Trains, buses, taxis, hotels, hospitals, schools and colleges, swimming pools, public toilets etc. were all separate for the whites and blacks. They could not even visit the churches where the whites worshipped. Blacks could not form associations or protest against the terrible treatment.
2. What was the appeal made by the black leaders to the fellow blacks after the emergence of the new democratic South Africa?
Ans. After the emergence of the new democratic South Africa, black leaders appealed to fellow blacks to forgive the whites for the atrocities they had committed while in power. They urged the people to build a new South Africa based on equality of all races, and of men and women, on democratic values, social justice and equal human rights.
3. What is meant by the term ‘Constitution’?
Ans. The constitution of a country is a set of written rules that are accepted by all people living in that country. It is the supreme law that determines the relationship among the people living in a territory (called citizens) and also the relationship between the people and government. It specifies how the government will be constituted and who will have the power to make different decisions.
4. Why was a constitution necessary for a country like South Africa?
Ans. The oppressor and the oppressed, i.e. the whites and the blacks were planning to live together, as equals. It was not going to be easy for them to trust each other. They wanted to safeguard their interests. The only way to build and maintain trust was to write down some rules. This set of basic rules was the constitution needed for South Africa.
5. Why did the makers of the Indian constitution have anxieties about the present and the future of the country?
Ans. The makers of the Indian constitution had anxieties because the making the constitution for a huge and diverse country like India was not an easy affair. The country was born through the partition on the basis of religious differences. At least ten lakh people were killed on both sides of the border in partition related violence. Another problem was that the British had left it to the rulers of the princely states to decide whether they wanted to merge with India or with Pakistan or to remain independent.
6. Describe how the Constituent Assembly worked to prepare the constitution for India.
Ans. The Constituent Assembly worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner. First, some basic principles were decided and agreed upon. Then a Drafting Committee chaired by Dr B.R. Ambedkar prepared a draft constitution for discussion. Several rounds of thorough discussion took place, clause by clause. More than 2000 amendments were made. The members deliberated for 114 days spread over 3 years. Every document presented and every word spoken in the Constituent Assembly was recorded and preserved. These are called ‘Constituent Assembly Debates’.
7. Describe the advantages that Indians had when they participated in the legislatures which were set up as a result of the elections of 1937.
Ans. Although the legislatures set up in India as a result of elections of 1937 were not fully democratic, the experience gained by Indians in the working of the legislative institutions proved to be very useful for the country in setting up its own institutions and working in them.
8. What were the difficulties faced during the making of the Indian constitution?
Ans. The Indian constitution was drawn up under very difficult circumstances. Making a constitution for a huge country like India was not an easy affair. The country was born through the partition. The problem of princely states was left undecided by the British. There were anxieties about the present and future of the country.
9. State the steps involved in the framing of the Indian constitution.
Ans. The drafting of the document called the constitution was done by an assembly of elected representatives called the Constituent Assembly. Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in July 1946. Its first meeting was held in December 1946. It had 299 members. The assembly adopted the constitution on 26 November 1949 and it came into force on 26 January 1950.
10. What is the constitution? Why do we need a constitution?
Ans. The constitution is a set of written rules that are accepted by all the people of a country. It is needed as it is the supreme law that determines the relationship among citizens of a country. It defines how the government will be formed and also limits the powers of the government and defines the rights of the citizens.
11. In his speech ‘Tryst with Destiny’, Nehru said, ‘Freedom and power bring responsibility.’ Explain what he meant by this.
Ans. By saying that ‘Freedom and power bring responsibility’, Nehru meant that it is the responsibility of Indians to not relax with ease after having got the freedom, but to constantly strive to fulfil the pledges taken. He said that the service of India meant the service of the millions who suffered, it meant the ending of poverty and ignorance and disease and inequality of opportunity.
12. Define the following terms mentioned in the Preamble to the constitution of India.
(a) Sovereign (b) Socialist (c) Secular (d) Republic
Ans. Sovereign means people have the supreme right to make decisions on internal and external matters. No external power can dictate to the Government of India.
Socialist means that wealth is generated socially it should be shared equally by society.
Secular means that citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion but there is no official religion.
Republic means the head of the State is an elected person and not a hereditary position.
13. What are the Constitutional Amendments? State its significance in a democratic country like India.
Ans. Constitutional Amendments are changes in the constitution made by the Supreme Legislative body in a country. The constitution of India is a very long and detailed document. Therefore, it needs to be amended quite regularly to keep it updated.
14. What do you understand by the term secularism? Why is India called a secular country?
Ans. India is a country of many religions and it respects all religions. No religion is given the status of state religion and equal respect is given to all beliefs, faiths and practices. Citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion.
15. What is the aim of a socialist state? How can that be achieved?
Ans. Wealth is generated socially and should be shared equally by society. The government should regulate the ownership of land and industry to reduce socio-economic equalities. Social inequalities have to be reduced, Government should work for the welfare of all.
16. What is the preamble of the constitution? What is the significance of ‘We the people of India’ and ‘secular’ in the preamble?
Ans. The Preamble is an introductory part of the constitution. It is called the key to the Constitution. “We the people of India” means the constitution has been drawn up and enacted by the people through their representatives. Secular means that citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion. But there as no official religion.
17. The Preamble of our constitution is a short statement of values. Which country has inspired India to incorporate the Preamble? Why does it start with ‘‘We the People of India?’’
Ans. Taking inspiration from the American model, most countries including India have chosen to begin their constitutions with an importance to the people of India by saying that it is the people who have drawn up and enacted the constitution. It has not been handed down to them by a king or any outside power.