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NCERT 9 Chapter 2 People as Resource
Topic– 2: Economic Activities by Men and Women
I. Very Short Answer Type Questions. [1 Mark]
1. What are the economic activities?
Ans. Activities that add value to the national income are called economic activities.
2. Name the economic activities of the primary sector.
Ans. The primary sector includes agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishing, poultry farming, mining and quarrying etc.
3. Name the economic activities of the secondary sector.
Ans. All types of manufacturing industries.
4. Which activities are included in the tertiary sector?
Ans. It includes trade, transport, communication, banking, education, health, tourism, insurance, services etc.
5. Define market activities.
Ans. Market activities involve remuneration to the person who performs i.e., activity performed for pay or profit.
6. What are non-market activities?
Ans. Production for self-consumption is non-market activities.
7. What is the division of labour between men and women in the family in villages?
Ans. Women generally look after domestic chores and men work in the fields.
II. Short Answer Type Questions. [3 Marks]
1. Classify any two sectors of economic activities with examples.
Ans. Various economic activities can be classified into three main sectors, that is the primary sector, secondary sector and tertiary sector. The primary sector includes activities like agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishing, poultry farming and mining. In this sector, goods are produced with the help of nature. In the secondary sector, manufacturing (small and large) and construction activities are included.
2. What is the difference between economic activities and non-economic activities?
Ans. The activities which are performed for money and helped in generating income are called economic activities. These activities add value to the national income.
Those activities which are not performed for money and do not result in economic income are called non-economic activities.
3. What do you understand by economic activities? List some of the unpaid economic activities done by women in India.
Ans. Those activities of human beings relating to earning and spending of income are known as economic activities. In other words, economic activities refer to all human activities which are concerned with money or wealth.
If we have a close look at the activities of various people around us, we find that everybody is busy doing one kind of activity or the other. For instance, farmers are working on their plots, workers in factories, several persons go to their offices for work, doctors go to hospitals for attending patients, teachers go to schools to teach their classes and women generally look after domestic affairs like cooking of food, washing of clothes, cleaning of utensils, house-keeping and looking after children. They are not paid for such services.
4. Difference between Market Activities and Non-Market Activities.
Ans. Economic activities can be classified into market activities and non-market activities. Market activities involve remuneration to anyone who performs the activity. These include the production of goods and services for sale in the market. On the other hand, non-market activities are the production activities performed for self-consumption. These include consumption and processing of primary products and own-account production of fixed assets.
III. Long Answer Type Questions. [5 Marks]
1. How the economic activities are classified into primary, secondary and tertiary sectors?
Ans. The economic activities are classified into primary, secondary and tertiary sectors in the following ways:
(i) Primary Sector: In the primary sector, activities relating to lands like agriculture and allied activities such as forestry, dairying, fishing, poultry farming, mining, stone quarrying etc. are included. In this sector, goods/products are produced by exploiting natural resources.
(ii) Secondary Sector: It covers activities relating to manufacturing and construction. It converts one type of product into another. For example, manufacture of cotton yarn by using cotton fibre, the weaving of cloth from cotton yarn, use of sugarcane in making sugar or gur, and use of bricks to make houses and buildings.
(iii) Tertiary Sector: Apart from primary and secondary products, there is a third category of activities that fall under the tertiary sector. The economy needs not only physical goods but also services like transportation of goods, storage of goods, banking and insurance and so on. These services are needed by households and primary and secondary sectors. Tertiary activities themselves do not produce goods but they are a support for the production process.
2. Why are women employed in low paid work?
Ans. A majority of the women in India have very less education and low skill formation and thus they perform mainly unskilled labour and get lower wages.
(i) Being less educated they are unaware of their rights and about minimum wages, or they work in the unorganised sector where they get low wages.
(ii) They are traditionally considered physically inferior to men and believed to do less work, so they are paid less compared to men.
3. What are the two parts of economic activity? State two characteristics of each.
Ans. Economic activities are those activities which add value to the national income.
Two parts of economic activities are :
(i) Market activities and
(ii) Non-market activities.
(i) Market activities involve remuneration to anyone who performs i.e., activity performed for pay or profit. These activities include the production of goods or services including government service.
(ii) Non-market activities are the production for self-consumption. These can be consumption and processing of primary product and own-account production of fixed assets.