Class 9 Improvement in food resources

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Class-IX

Chapter-9

Improvement in Food Resources

  INTRODUCTION

As we all know that all living organisms need food for their growth and development. The food we take provides us energy for doing work, for growth, repair, development and health. The plants and animals have been the major sources of food for ages. But since, the human population is increasing day by day; their food requirement is also increasing along with it. For this reason, a number of other food production techniques are being invented day by day.

Do you know humans require more than a quarter of billions of tonnes of grain every year meeting their increasing demand for food? Have you ever wondered how it is achieved? Yes, the food requirement is achieved by farming on more lands. But India is already intensively cultivated. As a result, we do not have any major scope for increasing the area of land under cultivation. Therefore, it is necessary to increase our production efficiency for both crops and livestock.

In this chapter, we will study the ways by which one can bring about the improvements in food production.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

In this lesson, you will be able to learn about:

  • Dependence of humans on plants and animals
  • Crop
  • Types of crops: Kharif and Rabi crops
  • Improved agricultural activities, which include:
    • Crop variety improvement
    • Crop production improvement
    • Crop protection management
  • Various aspects of crop variety improvement
  • Methods of crop variety improvement
  • Nutrients: Micronutrients and macronutrients
  • Mineral replenishment methods: Manures, fertilisers and organic farming
  • Irrigation and various irrigation systems
  • Cropping Systems and patterns: Crop rotation, Mixed cropping, Inter-cropping
  • Protection of crop from pests, pathogens and weeds
  • Storage of grains
  • Animal husbandry with respect to
    • Cattle farming
    • Poultry farming
    • Fish farming
    • Apiculture
  • Animal breeding

 REVOLUTIONS

Improved agricultural practices have increased the production of about 400 million tonnes of plant food products and about 90 million tonnes of animal food products. Also, it has resulted in a variety of “revolutions” which made India self-reliant. For example,

 The green revolution was a programme introduced in many poor countries to increase food production by use of modern technology, proper irrigation, improved seeds etc.

  • Similarly, the white revolution was introduced to increase milk, a blue revolution to increase fish production and yellow revolution to increase oil production.

 

Agricultural revolution Production
Green revolution Cereals
White revolution Milk
Blue revolution Fish
Red revolution Tomatoes
Golden revolution Horticulture
Silver revolution Eggs and chicken
Yellow revolution Oilseeds

 

Important notes: The great increase in the yield of the wheat crop during the 1970s is called a green revolution. Dr N.E. Borlaug was the scientist behind the green revolution. He developed high yielding triple dwarf Mexican wheat varieties.

 DEPENDENCE OF HUMANS ON PLANTS AND ANIMALS

Humans are dependent on plants and animals for food. Most of our food items are either plant’s product such as grains, vegetables and fruits or animal products like milk, egg, mutton, chicken etc.

We eat various parts of the plant as food. For example, grains of rice and wheat are seeds; radish and carrot are roots; potatoes and ginger are the stems. We also eat leaves and stem of spinach and plenty of fruits.

Activity 

We use a variety of items every day that are derived directly or indirectly from plants and animals. Make a list of such items and categorise these items into the one derived from plants and animals.

 


Exercise 1

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