Food and Its Components class Vi

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Food and Its Components

A substance which is essential for maintaining life and growth is called a nutrient. Nutrients, along with water and roughage form important parts of our food.

Components of Food

Major five components of food are:

(1) Carbohydrates

(2) Proteins

(3) Fat

(4) Vitamin

(5) Minerals

Nutrients along with water and roughage form important parts of our food.

(6) Water

(7) Roughage (Dietary fibre)

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  1. Carbohydrates, energy-giving food
  • Carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
  • The bulk of what we eat consists of carbohydrates.
  • The simplest carbohydrates are sugars like glucose and fructose. While glucose is found in grape juice, fructose is found in honey.
  • Glucose can be broken down very quickly by the body to release energy. That is why it is given to patients and sportspersons who require a quick supply of energy.
  • Carbohydrates are formed in plants during photosynthesis. Carbohydrates are the main and the cheapest source of energy for our body.
  • Therefore, carbohydrates are called energy giving food.

Carbohydrates provide energy to our body. The main carbohydrate that we eat in our food is starch and it comes from cereals like wheat and rice.

Sources of carbohydrates

v  Cereals: Wheat, Rice, Maize, Pearl millet.

v  Vegetables: Potatoes, Sugar, Jaggery (Gud) and honey.

v  Fruits: Banana, mango, melon and papaya.

Three major carbohydrates are:

  1. Sugar: Simplest carbohydrate. Sugars are the carbohydrates having a sweet taste. The main sources
    of sugar in our food are glucose, milk, apples, grapes, mango, sugarcane etc. sugar is soluble in water. Refined sugar is a pure carbohydrate. Sugars lack proteins, vitamins and minerals.
  2. Starch: Complex carbohydrate. Starch doesn’t have any flavour or taste. It is soluble in water. Major sources of starch are rice, wheat, potatoes etc.
  3. Cellulose: Complex carbohydrate present in a plant cell.Cellulose does not have any flavour or taste. It is derived from plants. Cellulose is present in the woody plant, plant cell wall, cotton etc.

Digestion of Carbohydrates

As the process of digestion starts, sugars and starch get converted into glucose. Glucose is a soluble substance. After formation of glucose, it is absorbed by blood and transported to each part of the body.


  • Excess intake of sugar and starch (carbohydrate) can result in a disease called diabetes. Diabetes is a severe disease. If diabetes level is increased in a person’s body it can lead to death.
  • On an average, an adult needs about 10-15 grammes of sugar per day. Glucose directly enters the bloodstream and produces energy through respiration.


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