English language passages
Write a precis of the following passage and explain in not more than five words each, the phrases in italics:
It must not be thought that in stressing the non-material objectives of Rural Reconstruction, I wish to deny the existence or the urgency of the problem of poverty. Poverty is there, and plenty of it, and its removal a vital necessity. But the removal of poverty as an end in itself is bound to fail. Nothing impresses one more, as one moves about the villages than the very great deal of obviously profitable work waiting to be done and the amount of actual wealth now being wasted. And this indifference to the means of economic improvement is often more obvious in the poorer than in the wealthier parts of the province.Poverty is no stimulus to hard work or to thrift. In fact, the greatest progress is being made where poverty is a less serious problem, and more money is being spent by the people on domestic amenities than on wealth-producing activities. But the poor cannot give a lead in thrift and hard work. Rural Reconstruction must begin from the top. Those who are not obsessed with the problem of the next meal must be given a new pattern of living to work and to save for. Once they set the example the poor will copy them just as they now copy them in waste and idleness. Then and then only will the permanent solution of the problem of poverty begin to be possible. This does not mean that the poor must be neglected. Far from it, work must go on among all classes, but the real objective of better living must never be lost sight of and it must be realized that urgent through the removal of poverty is work devoted to this end, unless combined with work for the raising of the standard of living, can only be a temporary palliative which in the end may lead to even greater poverty.
Heading: How to Tackle the Problem of Poverty in Village Life
Precis: No scheme of rural reconstruction can ignore the urgent problem of poverty. But poverty cannot be removed as an isolated factor. There is plenty of waste and neglect of profitable work in village life. The poor do not work hard or do they save. It is the wealthier classes who spend more money on daily comforts. Who is more progressive. They can give a lead to the poor by following a better plan of living and the poor are bound to follow them as is their nature. It is this safe and, will eventually solve the problem of their poverty in a satisfactory manner.