Chapter 1: The rise of nationalism in Europe
Class 10 The rise of nationalism in Europe history
Very Short Answer Type Questions. [1 Mark]
1. What was the nature of conservative regimes set up in 1815?
Ans. They were autocratic. They did not tolerate criticism and dissent and sought to curb activities that questioned the legitimacy of autocratic governments.
2. Which class led the revolutions of 1830-1848 in Europe?
Ans. These revolutions were led by the liberal nationalists belonging to the educated middle-class elite, among whom were professors, teachers, clerks, and members of the commercial middle class.
3. What did liberalism emphasise politically?
Ans. Politically, it emphasised the concept of government by consent, end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament.
4. Which French artist prepared a series of four prints visualising his dream of a world made up of democratic and social republics?
Ans. Frederic Sorrieu.
5. Who remarked, ‘When France sneezes, the rest of Europe catches a cold’?
6. Greece had been part of which empire since the fifteenth century?
Ans. Ottoman Empire.
7. When and by which treaty Greece was recognised as an independent nation?
Name the Treaty of 1832 that recognised Greece as an independent nation.
Ans. By the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 Greece was recognised as an independent nation.
8. Which romantic philosopher claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people?
Ans. Johann Gottfried Herder.
9. Who celebrated the Polish national struggle through his operas and music?
Ans. Karol Kurpinski.
10. Which language in Poland came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance?
Ans. Polish Language.
11. Give two causes of revolution (1830-48) in Europe.
Ans. (i) The enormous increase in population.
(ii) Rise of food prices, food shortages and widespread unemployment.
12. When was the Frankfurt Parliament held?
Ans. On 18 May 1848 at Frankfurt (Germany) in the church of St. Paul.
13. Which class dominated the Frankfurt Parliament?
Ans. Middle classes.
14. Give two results of (1830-48) revolutions in Europe.
Ans. (i) Monarchs were convinced that they had to grant concessions to the revolutionaries.
(ii) Serfdom and bonded labour were abolished in Habsburg dominions and in Russia.
15. What was Romanticism?
Ans. It was a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment based on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings.
16. What happened to the Frankfurt Parliament in the end?
Ans. In the end, troops were called in and the assembly was forced to disband.
17. Why did Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia reject the offer of Frankfurt Assembly?
Ans. Because the assembly drafted a constitution for the German nation to be headed by a monarchy subject to a parliament.
18. When did the struggle for independence of Greece begin?
Ans. In 1821.
19. Which famous English poet organised funds for Greek war of independence and went to fight in the war?
Ans. Lord Byron.
20. What is a Utopian Society?
Ans. A society that is so ideal that it is unlikely to actually exist.
21. What was a nation-state?
Ans. A state in which the majority of its citizens, and not only its rulers, came to develop a sense of common identity and shared history or descent.
22. Which class comprised the majority of the population in early 19th century Europe?
Ans. Peasantry formed the majority of the population while the aristocracy was numerically a small group.
23. What is the literal meaning of liberalism?
Ans. The term ‘liberalism’ derives from the Latin root liber, meaning free.
24. What did the conservatives believe in?
Ans. They believed that monarchy, church social hierarchies, property and family should be preserved.
25. What was Zollverein?
Ans. It was a customs union formed in 1834 at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German states.
26. Who hosted the Congress of Vienna?
Ans. The Congress was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich.
27. When and where did the Congress of Vienna take place?
Ans. It was hosted at Vienna in 1815.
28. Who participated in the Congress of Vienna?
Ans. Representatives of Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria met in the Congress of Vienna.
29. What was the main intention behind the Congress of Vienna?
Ans. (i) To draw up a settlement for Europe.
(ii) To restore the monarchies that had been overthrown by Napoleon and to create a new conservative order.
30. Name two secret societies founded by Guiseppe Mazzini.
Ans. (i) Young Italy (ii) Young Europe.
31. Who was described by Metternich as ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’?
Ans. Guiseppe Mazzini.
32. Define the term plebiscite.
Ans. A direct vote by which all the people of a region are asked to accept or reject a proposal.
33. Who was the chief architect of the unification of Germany?
Ans. Prussia’s Chief Minister, Otto von Bismarck was the chief architect of this process carried – out with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.
34. When was the new German empire proclaimed? Who was its head?
Who was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles in January 1871?
Ans. It was proclaimed on 18 January 1871. The new German empire was headed by Kaiser William I of Prussia.
35. Out of the seven states of Italy, which one was ruled by an Italian princely house?
36. Name the rulers of different states of Italy before its unification.
Ans. The northern region was under Austrian Habsburgs, the centre was ruled by the Pope and the southern regions were under the domination of the Bourbon Kings of Spain.
37. Who founded the Secret Society ‘Young Italy’? What was its aim?
Ans. Giuseppe Mazzini for achieving unification of Italy.
38. Who spearheaded the movement for the unification of Italy?
Ans. Chief Minister of Sardinia-Piedmont Count Cavour led the movement to unify Italy.
39. Who was Guiseppe Garibaldi?
Ans. He was a key figure of the Italian unification, who led the armed volunteers in South Italy.
40. Who was proclaimed the king of united Italy in 1861?
Ans. The king of Sardinia-Piedmont, Victor Emmanuel II.
41. When did the English Parliament seize power from the monarchy?
Ans. In 1688.
42. Which was the chief instrument through which a nation-state, with England, at its centre, came to be forged?
Ans. The English Parliament.
43. What is an allegory?
Ans. It is a female personification of a nation.
44. What were the attributes of liberty during the French Revolution?
Ans. Attributes of liberty are the red cap, broken chain while justice is generally a blindfolded woman carrying a pair of weighing scales.
45. What was the allegory of Germany named?
46. What was the allegory of France named?
47. What do the following visuals represent in the figure of Germania?
(a) Rays of the rising sun (b) Sword
(c) Olive branch around the sword
Ans. (a) Beginning of a new era (b) Readiness to fight
(c) Willingness to make peace
48. What was the main aim of the French revolutionaries?
Ans. To end monarchy and despotism and to establish democracy.
49. What was the effect of the Act of Union?
Ans. This resulted in the formation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain.
50. Name the Irish party and the leader who revolted against English dominance?
Ans. Wolfe Tone led United Irishmen but the revolt failed.
51. What was the major change that occurred in the political and constitutional scenario due to the French Revolution in Europe?
Ans. Transfer of sovereignty from monarchy to common citizens of the country.
52. How did nationalism change in the 19th century?
Ans. Nationalism no longer remained a liberal-democratic sentiment but become a narrow creed.
53. What was the most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871?
Ans. The Balkans
54. Which modern-day countries comprised Balkans?
Ans. Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro.
55. Which empire controlled a large part of Balkans?
Ans. Ottoman empire
56. How did the Ottoman empire break up?
Ans. Despite attempts at modernisation and internal reforms, the empire broke up. The Balkans peoples based their claims for independence on nationality.
57. Which powers were involved in the rivalry in the Balkans?
Ans. Russia, Germany, England and Austro-Hungary.
58. What were the symbols of new Britain?
Ans. British flag (Union Jack), the National Anthem (God save our noble king) and the English language became symbols of the United Kingdom of Great Britain.
59. What did the ideas of la Patrie and le citoyen emphasise?
Ans. These emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
60. Give another term for the Civil Code of 1804.
Ans. Napoleonic Code.
61. In addition to France, the Napoleonic Code was implemented in which regions?
Ans. Dutch Republic, Switzerland, Italy and Germany.
62. Why did the people in conquered territories become hostile to Napoleon?
Ans. There was no political freedom. Moreover, high taxation, censorship, forced conscription into the French armies made the people hostile.
63. What was the main aim of revolutionaries of Europe during the years following 1815?