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Class 10 How Do Organisms Reproduce NCERT Solutions

Chapter 8: How Do Organisms Reproduce

Topic 1: Asexual Reproduction

Very Short Answer Type Questions [1 Mark]

Q.1. Define reproduction.

Ans. The process in which new individuals of the same species are produced by existing organisms (parents).

Q.2. What are the two types of reproduction?

Ans. (i) Asexual reproduction (ii) Sexual reproduction.

Q.3. Which life process ensures that a plant or animal species will not disappear from the earth?

Ans. Reproduction.

Q.4. Define asexual reproduction.

Ans. It is the mode of reproduction in which the offspring are produced by a single parent without involving sex cells.

Q.5. Give two examples in which asexual reproduction occurs by spore formation.

Ans. Rhizopus and Penicillium.

Q.6. By which method Hydra reproduces asexually?

Ans. Budding.

Q.7. Give one example of a plant in which vegetative propagation takes place through the leaf.

Ans. Bryophyllum.

Q.8. Write the name of two organisms that reproduce asexually by budding and can regenerate from a small part of their body.

Ans. Hydra and yeast.

Q.9. How does reproduction take place in unicellular organisms?

Ans. By cell division or fission.

Q.10. In which structure of Rhizopus are produced spores?

Ans. Sporangium.

Q.11. Mention the plant where vegetative propagation takes place through roots.

Ans. Dahlia, sweet potato, etc.

Q.12. Which parts of the plant can grow vegetatively?

Ans. Stems, roots and leaves.

Q.13. How are spores protected?

Ans. A thick wall-covering protects the spores from coming in contact with a moist surface.

Q.14. Which mode of asexual reproduction is used in layering or grafting?

Ans. Vegetative propagation.

Q.15. Define fragmentation.

Ans. Growing the new individuals from pieces or fragments of multicellular organisms is called fragmentation.

Example: Spirogyra.

Topi 2: Sexual Reproduction

Very Short Answer Type Questions [1 Mark]

Q.15 Define sexual reproduction.

Ans. The process of producing new individuals from two parents (both male and female) by involving their gametes of the same species is known as sexual reproduction. Example: Human beings, cats, dogs, etc.

Q16Define fertilization.

Ans. The fusion of male germ cell with the female germ cell to form zygote during sexual reproduction is known as fertilization.

Q.17 Name the product of fertilization.

Ans. Zygote.

Q.18 Give two examples each of the unisexual and bisexual flowers.

Ans. Unisexual flowers: Papaya and watermelon.

Bisexual flowers: Hibiscus and mustard.

Q.19 Name the reproductive part of higher plants (Angiosperms).

Ans. Flower.

Q.20 Mention the basic requirements for sexual reproduction.

Ans. Presence of both male and female gametes.

Q.21 Name two abiotic and biotic agents of pollination.

Ans. Abiotic agents: Wind and water.

Biotic agents: Insects and birds.

Q.22 What happens to ovule and ovary after fertilisation in a flowering plant?

Ans. After fertilisation ovule develops into seeds and the ovary develops into a fruit.

Q.23 Name those parts of a flower which serve the same as the following do in animals :

(i) Eggs (ii) Sperms

Ans. (i) Female gamete or egg cell (ii) Male gamete in pollen grain

Q.24 Name the opening through which pollen tube enters the ovule.

Ans. Micropyle.