Class 10 Chapter 4 The Making of a Global World

Chapter 4: The Making of a Global World

Extra Questions-Answers

Very Short Answer Type Questions. [1 Mark]

1. Which has been described as a ‘new system of Slavery’?

Ans. Nineteenth-century indenture.

2. Name a Nobel prize-winning writer who is a descendant of indentured labour migrants from India?

Ans. V.S. Naipaul.

3. Name a few West Indies cricket players whose forefathers belonged to India.

Ans. Shiv Naraine Chanderpaul, Ramnaresh Sarwan, Sunil Naraine, etc.

4. When was the indentured labour system abolished?

Ans. It was abolished in 1921.

5. How did Britain finance its tea and other imports from China?

Ans. Britain grew opium in India and exported it to China and, with the money earned through this sale, it financed its tea and other imports from China.

6. What comprised the ‘home charges’ of Britain during its rule over India?

Ans. They included private remittances to home by British officials and traders, interest payments on India’s external debt, and pensions of British officials in India.

7. What do the Silk routes signify?

Ans. The silk routes are a good example of vibrant pre-modern trade and cultural links between the eastern and western worlds.

8. Where did the Potato Famine occur in the mid-1840s?

Ans. In Ireland.

 9. Name the three types of movement or ‘flows’ within international economic exchanges in the 19th century.

Ans. (i) The flow of trade (ii) Flow of labour (iii) Flow of capital.

10. What were the Corn Laws?

Ans. The laws which allowed the government in Britain to restrict the import of corn.

11. Who forced the abolition of Corn Laws?

Ans. Industrialists and urban dwellers.

12. Mention two effects of the abolition of Corn Laws.

Ans. (i) Vast areas of land were left uncultivated.

(ii) Thousands of people employed in agriculture were rendered jobless.

 13. Which countries comprised the ‘Allies’ during the First World War?

Ans. Britain, France, Russia and the US.

14. Which countries comprised the ‘central powers’ during the First World War?

Ans. Germany, Austria, Hungary and Ottoman Turkey.

15. Which war transformed the US from being an international debtor to an international creditor?

Ans. First World War.

16. Name a famous pioneer of mass production.

Ans. Henry Ford.

17. Which was the world’s first mass-produced car?

Ans. T-Model Ford.

18. Who was the first entrepreneur to adopt the ‘assembly line’ method of production?

Ans. Henry Ford.

19. What was described by Henry Ford as the ‘best cost-cutting decision’ he had ever made?

Ans. His decision to double the daily wage of workers in his car factory in Detroit.

20. When did the Great Depression occur?

Ans. It began around 1929 and lasted till the mid-1930s.

21. Where did the Great Depression begin?

Ans. In the USA.

22. Name the famous economist who thought that Indian gold exports promoted global economic recovery?

Ans. John Maynard Keynes.

23. How many people emigrated from Europe to America and Australia in the 19th century?

Ans. Nearly 50 million people.

24. What was the total number of migrants all over the world in the 19th century?

Ans. 150 million people.

25. Which crops were grown in the canal colonies in Punjab?

Ans. Wheat and cotton for export.

26. What was the aim behind the meeting of European powers in 1885 in Berlin?

Ans. To complete the carving up of Africa between them.

27. Which were the chief colonial powers in the 19th century?

Ans. Britain, France, Belgium, Germany, Spain, Portugal, Italy and the US.

 28. Who comprised the Axis powers and the Allies in the Second World War.

Ans. Axis powers — Germany, Japan and Italy.

Allies—Britain, France, the Soviet Union and the USA.

29. Which are referred to as the Bretton Woods institutions?

Ans. (i) International Monetary Fund (IMF)

(ii) International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank)

30. When did the IMF and the World Bank commence financial operations?

Ans. In 1947

31. What was G-77?

Ans. A group of 77 developing countries.

32. Which organisation demanded a New International Economic Order (NIEO)?

Ans. G-77

33. Write the name of the author who was a descendant of indentured labour migrants from India?

Ans. V.S. Naipaul.

34. Why did big European powers meet in Berlin in 1885?

Ans. To complete the carving up of Africa between them.

35. Why were Europeans attracted to Africa in the late nineteenth century?

Ans. Europeans were attracted to Africa due to its vast resources of land and minerals. They hoped to establish plantations and mines to produce crops and minerals for export to Europe.

36. What was rinderpest?

Ans. It was an infectious cattle disease which killed most of the cattle in Africa in the late 1880s.

37. What was the socio-economic effect of the devastation caused by the rinderpest?

Ans. (i) It destroyed African livelihoods pushing them into the labour market.

(ii) It helped Europeans to conquer Africa.

38. Who were indentured labourers?

Ans. They were bonded labourers hired under contract to work in plantations and mines in Sri Lanka, West Indies and other British colonies.

39. From which regions did most of the Indian indentured labourers come?

Ans. From present-day regions of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Central India and dry districts of Tamil Nadu.

40. Which were the main destination of Indian indentured migrants?

Ans. Caribbean Islands (mainly Trinidad, Guyana and Surinam), Mauritius, Fiji. Tamil migrants went to Sri Lanka and Malaya. Within India, they worked in tea plantations in Assam.

41. Which precious metals found in Peru and Mexico enhanced Europe’s wealth and fi­nanced its trade with Asia?

Ans. Many precious metals, mainly silver.

42. Who were the earliest colonisers of America?

Ans. Portugal and Spain.

43. Which was the fabled city of gold?

Ans. El Dorado.

44. Which was the most powerful weapon of Spanish colonisers?

Ans. Smallpox — a disease which killed thousands of America’s original inhabitants.

45. Which Asian countries were the richest in the eighteenth century?

Ans. India and China.