Chapter 4 Climate Geography

Topic: Climate of India

Very Short Answer Type Questions. [1 Mark]

1. Define the term ‘weather’.

Ans. The term ‘weather’ refers to the day-to-day changes in the atmospheric conditions recorded over a short period of time and over a small area.

2. What is climate?

Ans. Climate is the average weather conditions recorded over a longer period of time of a large area.

3. Based on the climatic conditions, how many seasons are there in India?

Ans. On the basis of climatic conditions, there are four seasons in India, namely summer, winter, southwest monsoon and the northeast monsoon.

4. What do the latitude and altitude of a place determine?

Ans. They determine (a) pressure and wind system (b) temperature and (c) rainfall pattern.

5. Why does each latitude receive a different amount of isolation or solar energy?

Ans. Because of the spherical shape of the earth.

6. Why does temperature decrease as we move from the Equator to the Poles?

Ans. Because the sun’s rays fall vertical at the Equator and slanting at the Poles.

7. Which type of climate does India experience?

Ans. India has a tropical monsoon climate.

8. What are monsoons?

Ans. Monsoons are seasonal winds that change their direction between summer and winter.

9. Which tropical latitude passes through the middle of our country?

Ans. The Tropic of Cancer passes at 23°30´N through our country dividing it into two parts.

10. Why does the Indian subcontinent experiences comparatively milder winters as compared to Central Asia?

Ans. The Indian subcontinent experiences comparatively milder winters as compared to Central Asia due to the mighty Himalayas. These mountains stop the cold winds from central Asia from entering the Indian subcontinent.

11. What is the jet stream?

Ans. It is a fast blowing component of upper air circulation at an altitude of, 12,000 metres and blowing from about 110 to 184 km/h in the atmosphere.

12. What does the term ‘continentality’ mean?

Ans. The term ‘continentality’ refers to the condition of too hot in summers and too cold in winters, e.g. the climate of Delhi.

13. What is the rate of temperature decrease as we go up to higher altitude?

Ans. As we move from the sea level to higher altitude, temperature decreases at the rate of 1° Celsius for every 165 metres.

14. Why does a place in the interior of the country face extreme climate in the summers and winters?

Ans. Because the interior regions do not have the moderating effect of the seas, for example, Delhi has extreme climate than Mumbai.

15. What are the influences of pressure and wind condition upon latitude and altitude of a place?

Ans. The pressure and wind conditions influence the temperature and rainfall pattern of a place.

16. What are ocean currents?

Ans. Ocean currents are constant circulation of water in oceans.

17. How many types of ocean currents are there?

Ans. There are two types of ocean currents. For example, Kuro Shio Warm Current and Oya Shio Cold Current near Japan.

18. Why does Mumbai receive more rainfall than Pune?

Ans. Mumbai receives more rainfall than Pune as it is located on the windward side of Western Ghats, while Pune is on the leeward side or rain shadow region of Western Ghats.

19. What is the significance of the Tropic of Cancer dividing India into two parts?

Ans. The region south of the Tropic of Cancer has a tropical climate and the region lying north of it has a subtropical or temperate climate.

20. What is the Coriolis force?

Ans. Winds are deflected due to the rotation of the earth. This is called the Coriolis force.

21. What are the influences on the climate of India?

Ans. The climate of India is influenced by the (1) pressure and surface winds (2) upper air circulation or jet streams and (3) western cyclonic storms and tropical cyclones.

22. What are jet streams?

Ans. Jet streams are upper air westerly winds moving at a velocity of 110 to 184km/hr. There are two branches of jet stream blowing over India.

23. What do you mean by western cyclonic storms? Ans. Western cyclonic storms are the tropical cyclones originating in the Mediterranean Sea that travel eastwards across Iran, Iraq and Pakistan, which enters India during winter.