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CBSE Story of Village Palampur Class9

 Topic– 2: Farming in Palampur

I. Very Short Answer Type Questions. [1 Mark]

1. What is multiple cropping?

Ans. It means growing more than one crop on a piece of land during the year.

2. When is the Kharif crop season?

Ans. Kharif cropping season is from July to October during the south-west monsoon period.

3. Who hire farm labourers to work on their fields?

Ans. Medium and large farmers hire farm labourers to work on their fields.

4. What do the farmers do with the wheat produced?

Ans. They retain a part of the wheat for the family’s consumption and sell the surplus wheat in the market.

5. Which states were the first to try out the modern farming methods in India?

Ans. Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh.

6. Which crop is grown in the rainy season in Palampur?

Ans. Jowar and bajra.

7. Why is the scope of farming limited in Palampur?

Ans. Because of the fixed amount of land.

8. Why do the farmers of Palampur follow multiple cropping?

Ans. Because this method is the most common way of increasing production.

9. State the bad effect of increased use of chemical fertilisers in agricultural fields?

Ans. Loss of soil fertility and reduction in water table below the ground.

10. Why do the farmers of Palampur follow multiple cropping?

Ans. The farmers of Palampur follow multiple cropping because this method is the most common way of increasing production.

II. Short Answer Type Questions. [3 Marks]

1. What do the scientific reports indicate about the modern farming methods? Mention any three points.

Ans. Scientific reports indicate that the modern farming methods have overused the natural resource base, e.g.,

(i) Green revolution, due to increased use of chemical fertilisers, has led to the loss of soil fertility.

(ii) Use of groundwater with due help of tube wells for irrigation has reduced the level of groundwater.

(iii) Use of chemical fertilisers resulted in the loss of soil fertility. Therefore, farmers are forced to use more and more chemical fertilisers to achieve the production levels which in turn raises the cost of production.

2. What are the sources of irrigation in Palampur?

Ans. Palampur holds a well-developed system of irrigation. Due to the introduction of electricity, the irrigation system transformed from Persian wheels to electric-run tubewells. Initially, the first few tubewells were installed by the government and then by mid of the 1970s the entire cultivated area of 200 hectares was irrigated by privately installed tubewells.

3. State any three advantages of multiple cropping.

Ans. Advantages of multiple cropping are :

(i) Efficient use of land: Land is not left idle at any time of the year and therefore it is more efficiently used in the process of production.

(ii) Increase of production: It increases the production on a piece of land during the year.

(iii) Increase in income: Multiple cropping increases the agricultural income of the country as well as for the farmers.

4. What is the Green Revolution? Which crop is benefitted the most due to the Green Revolution?

Ans. Green Revolution is the process of using modern farming methods for higher yield and achieving the self-sufficiency in the production of wheat and rice. It includes the use of High Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds, irrigation, chemical fertilisers, pesticides, etc., for producing best results. Wheat, rice and maize have benefitted most due to the Green Revolution.

5. What are the problems do farm labourers face in terms of employment? Explain any three problems.

Ans. Problems faced by farm labourers are :

(i) Inadequate wages: Government has fixed the minimum wages as ` 300 per day but they do not usually get this amount of money.

(ii) Availability of labour: Too much availability of labour forces the labourers to work on lower wages.

(iii) Duration of employment: Labourers are sometimes employed on a daily basis and sometimes for the whole year. They do not have regular employment.

6. Explain any three modern farming methods of Agriculture.

Ans. (i) Use of HYV seeds: Use of High Yielding Variety seeds promises a larger quantity of production of foodgrains.

(ii) Use of farm machinery: Use of machinery for irrigation, harvesting, threshing etc., improves the quality of work as well as reduces time consumption.

(iii) Use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides: Use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides ensure the farmers about the better upbringing of crops in quality and quantity.

7. Many factors are responsible for the poor economic condition of farm labourers like Dala and Ramkali. Can you explain a few of these factors?

Ans. The factors responsible for poor economic conditions of farm labourers like Dala and Ramkali are:

(i) Use of modern farming techniques: Use of modern farming techniques make it difficult for farm labourers to get work. Tractors are used for ploughing, harvesters for harvesting, threshers for threshing and weedicide for removing weeds. This leaves very less or no work for farm labourers.

(ii) Poorly Paid: Due to heavy competition for work among the farm labourers, people agree to work for lower wages. The minimum wages for a farm labourer set by the government is ` 300 per day but they are generally paid only half of it. This forces them to take a loan from local money lenders which put them in the vicious circle of poverty.

8. Who provides labour for farming in Palampur? How are they paid for their work?

Ans. After land, labour is the second most necessary factor for production. Small farmers along with the other members of their family cultivate their own fields. Thus, they provide the labour required for farming themselves. Medium and large scale farmers hire farm labourers to work on their fields.

Farm labourers are either engaged from landless families or the families cultivating a small piece of land. Farm labourers do not have any right over the crops grown on the land.

They are paid in the following ways :

(i) Wages are paid to them in the form of cash or kind, i.e., crops.

(ii) Government has set up minimum wages for farm labourers to be ` 300 per day but unfortunately, they do not get this much and are mostly exploited.

(iii) Sometimes, poor farm labourers work for a meal only.

(iv) Sometimes, they are employed on a daily basis and sometimes for the whole year. Thus, the duration of their employment is not fixed.

9. What are the difficulties faced by small farmers in arranging capital in comparison with medium and large farmers?

Ans. Modern farming methods require a great deal of capital, so the small farmers face more difficulties in arranging capital in comparison with medium and large farmers.

Most of the small farmers have to borrow money from large farmers or the village money lenders or the traders who supply various inputs for cultivation. The rate of interest on such loans is very high. This put the small farmers in great distress to repay the loans.

Unlike small farmers, medium and large farmers have their own savings from farming. They sell their good amount of surplus produce and earn more income. This income they utilise in arranging capital for next season of production.

10. What do you mean by Green Revolution? Why was the initial impact of Green Revolu­tion limited to wheat and only to a few regions?

Ans. Green Revolution is a revolution which was started in the late 1960s with the aim of achieving self-sufficiency in the production of grains like wheat and rice.

The initial impact of Green Revolution was limited to wheat and only to a few regions because initially, only the farmers of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh were the first to try out the modern farming method in India. They used tubewells for irrigation and made use of HYV seeds, chemical fertilisers and pesticides in farming. Capital required for using HYV seeds was very high. Therefore, small farmers and many backward regions could not use modern techniques.

Long Answer Type Questions. [5 Marks]

1. What is the Green Revolution? Explain some of its features.

Ans. Green Revolution is a revolution in agriculture using modern methods for higher yields and achieving self-sufficiency in the production of wheat and rice. It includes the use of High Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds, irrigation, chemical fertilizers, pesticides etc., for producing best results. Farmers of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh were the first to try it in the late 1960s.

Main features of the Green Revolution are as follows :

(i) Increase in yield: HYV seeds promised to produce much greater amounts of grains on a single plant. As a result, the same piece of land produced larger quantities of food grains.

(ii) Use of modern technology: Use of modern technology like tractors, harvesters, tubewells etc have made the implementation of Green Revolution possible.

(iii) Use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides: Unlike traditional fertilisers and manures, use of chemical fertilisers increased as a requirement with HYV seeds which improves the quality and quantity of the produce.

2. “In the kind of crops grown and facilities available, Palampur would resemble a village of the western part of the state of Uttar Pradesh”.)

(a) What are the different ways of increasing production on the same piece of land?

(b) Name the major crops grown in Palampur.

Ans. (a) Land area under cultivation is fixed. So, the ways of increasing farm produce on the same piece of land are :

(i) Multiple cropping: It is the most common way of increasing production on a given piece of land. Under it, more than one crop is grown on the same piece of land during the year. Indian farmers should grow at least two main crops in a year. Some farmers have been growing a third crop also over the past twenty years.

(ii) Green Revolution: It was brought in India in the late 1960s, with the use of HYV (High Yielding Variety) seeds for an increase in production of rice and wheat. It promised to produce a much greater amount of grains on a single plant.

(iii) Use of modern technology: By the use of modern technology, farmers are able to cultivate their land with greater efficiency. Farmers use pump sets for irrigation, threshers for threshing, harvesters for harvesting, tractors for ploughing etc.

(iv) Use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides: Use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides improves the fertility of the soil and reduces pest respectively for the particular period of production. This improves the quantity of production.

(b) Major crops grown in Palampur are, jowar, bajra, potato, wheat and sugarcane.

3. “Most small farmers have to borrow money to arrange for the capital. The rate of interest on such loans is very high. They are put to great distress to repay the loan.”

(i) What is the main source of capital for medium and large farmers? How is it different from small farmers?

(ii) What is the most common way through which small farmers can get a loan? What are its advantages and disadvantages?

(iii) Write their advantages and disadvantages.

Ans. (i) (a) Surplus wheat selling: Main source of capital for medium and large farmers in the supply of surplus wheat in the market as they own a large area of cultivable land. They retain part of wheat for their own use and sell rest of wheat in the market. While for small farmers, no surplus wheat is available so they arrange capital from large farmers or village money lenders or the traders.

(b) Extra work to the landowner or large farmers: In order to get a loan from the landowner or large farmers they have to pay higher interest rates and also extra work on their fields to repay the loan, while medium and large farmers can devote their full time to their own land.

Most of the small farmers prefer taking loans from large farmers or village moneylenders. Advantages of taking loans from such sources are :

• They are flexible in terms and conditions of repayment and rate of interest.

• They know the lenders personally so small farmers get loans without collateral security.

Disadvantages :

• Sometimes, the rate of interest is very high.

• Small farmers are exploited and are trapped in a vicious circle of poverty.

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